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  • 当前位置:首页 > 考题回顾与预测 >

    南京雅思培训中心2018年12月8日雅思考试阅读回顾

    时间:2018-12-13 10:36来源:朗阁小编作者:Judy
    朗阁雅思培训中心名师吴苏哲点评1. 本次雅思阅读考试整体程度为中等,其中第一、第三篇较简单,第二篇中等偏上。

      2018年12月8日雅思考试阅读回顾

      P1 Australia’s Cane Toad Problems 澳洲的巨型蟾蜍问题

      P2 New Filters Promise Water to Millions 新的净水器为数百万人提供净水(旧题重现)

      P3 Who Should Look After Babies in Britain 谁来照看英国的婴儿?

      朗阁名师吴苏哲点评

      1. 本次雅思阅读考试整体程度为中等,其中第一、第三篇较简单,第二篇中等偏上。

      2. 整体分析:涉及环境(P1)科技(P2)和社会(P3)

      3. 主要题型:12月的第二场考试在题型上依然延续了今年考试的重点,以摘要、判断和单项选择为主。摘要题共出现了整整17题,可谓重中之重。摘要题在P1和P3体现为Summary填空题,在P2体现为简单的流程图填空题。判断题和单选各出了10题和7题。判断题保持近期一贯的两组出题风格,分别出现在P1和P2中。单选题相对少些,出现在P2和P3。本次考试乱序题考得较少,只考了6题Matching题,且出现在难度相对较低的第三篇。

      P1 Australia’s Cane Toad Problems 澳洲的巨型蟾蜍问题

      

    锚点

      

    锚点

      澳大利亚因一种害虫泛滥成灾,决定引入北美的巨型蟾蜍,结果反而引起了更大的问题。

      包含Summary填空题7题(1-7),判断题6题(8-13)

      考题及参考答案:待补充

      P2 New Filters Promise Water to Millions 新的净水器为数百万人提供净水(旧题重现)

      

    锚点

      : Flynn发明了一种经济实用的净水器,且不愿意为此发明申请专利,以期帮助更多人。

      包含流程图填空6题(14-19),判断题4题(20-23),单选3题(24-26)

      参考答案:

      14. clay

      15. water

      16. straw

      17. cow manure

      18. 950 degrees

      19. 60 minutes

      20. False

      21. True

      22. Not Given

      23. Not Given

      24. C

      25. D

      26. A

      原文及考题分享

      New filter promises clean water for millions

      An ingenious invention is set to bring clean water to developing countries, and while the science may be cutting edge, the materials are extremely down to earth. A handful of clay, yesterday's coffee grounds and some cow manure are the ingredients that could bring clean, safe drinking water to many developing countries. The simple new technology, developed by Australian National University (ANU) materials scientist and potter Tony Flynn, allows water filters to be made from commonly available materials and fired (or baked) using cow manure as the source of heat, without the need for a kiln (an oven for baking or drying pottery). The filters have been tested and shown to remove common pathogens (disease-producing organisms) including E-coli.

      The invention was born out of a project involving the Manatuto community in East Timor. A charity operating there wanted to help set up a small industrial site manufacturing water filters, but initial research found the local clay to be too fine – a problem solved by the addition of organic material.

      While the problems of producing a working ceramic filter in East Timor were overcome, the solution was kiln-based and particular to that community’s materials and couldn't be applied elsewhere. Flynn’s technique for manure firing, with no requirement for a kiln, has made this zero technology approach available anywhere it is needed.

      Other commercial clay filters do exist, but, even if available, with prices starting at US$5 each, they are often outside the budgets of most people in the developing world. Unlike other water filtering devices, Flynn's filters are inexpensive and simple to produce. Take a handful of clay, mix it with a handful of organic material such as used tea leaves, coffee grounds or rice hulls, add water in a sufficient quantity to make a stiff mixture and form a cylindrical pot that has one end dosed, then dry it in the sun. According to Flynn, used coffee grounds have given the best results to date. The walls of the filter can be measure using the width of an adult finger as the standard. Next, surround the pots with straw, put them in a mound of cow manure, light the straw and then top up the burning manure as required. The filters are finished in 45 to 60 minutes.

      The properties of cow manure are vital, as the fuel can reach a temperature of 700 degrees in half an hour, and will be up to 950 degrees after another 20 to 30 minutes. The manure makes a good fuel because it is very high in organic material that burns readily and quickly. The manure has to be dry and is best used exactly as found in the field; there is no need to break it up or process it any further. In contrast, a potter’s kiln is an expensive item and can take up to four or five hours to get up to 800 degrees. It needs expensive scarce fuel, such as gas or wood to heat it, and experience to use it. With no technology, no insulation and nothing other than a pile of cow manure and a match, none of these requirements apply.

      It is also helpful that, like clay and organic material, cow manure is freely available across the developing world. A cow is a natural fuel factory. Manure is a mixture of vegetable materials of different sizes, and cow manure as a fuel is the same wherever it is found.

      Just as using manure as a fuel for domestic use is not a new idea, the fact that liquid can pass through clay objects is something that potters have always known, and clay’s porous nature is something that, as a former ceramics lecturer in the ANU School of Art, Flynn is well aware of. The difference is that, rather than viewing the porous nature of the material as a problem - after all, not many people want a pot that won't hold water - his filters capitalize on this property.

      The filtration process is simple, but effective. The basic principle is that there are passages through the filter that are wide enough for water droplets to pass through, but too narrow for pathogens. Tests with the deadly E-coli bacterium have seen the filters remove 96.4 to 99.8 per cent of the pathogen - well within safe levels. The thickness of the clay container needs to be the same thickness as an adult finger for the process to be effective. If this is the case, using only one filter, a liter of water can be obtained in two hours.

      The use of organic material, which burns away leaving cavities after firing, helps produce the structure in which pathogens will become trapped. It overcomes the potential problems of finer clays that may not let water through and also means that cracks are soon halted. And like clay and cow manure, organic material is universally available in the developing communities that need most assistance, as tea, coffee and rice are grown in these areas.

      With all the components being widely available, Flynn says there is no reason the technology couldn't be applied throughout the developing world. He has no plans to exploit his idea financially by registering ownership through a patent. If he did, any commercial copying would legally entitle him to a share in any profits made. Without a patent, there will be no illegality in it being adopted in any community that needs it. ‘Everyone has a right to clean water, and these filters have the potential to enable anyone in the world to drink water safely,' says Flynn.

      考题:

      Questions 14-19

      Complete the flow-chart below.

      Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS/AND ORA NUMBER from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.

      Step one: combination of 14 ____ and organic material, with sufficient 15_____ to create a thick mixture sun dried

      Step two: pack 16___ around the cylinders

      Place them in 17___ which is as burning fuel for firing (maximum temperature: 18____ ) filter being baked in under 19______

      Questions 20-23

      Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

      In boxes 20-23 on your answer sheet, write

      TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

      FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

      NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

      20. The clay in the Manatuto project was initially unsuitable for the project's purpose.

      21. Coffee grounds produce filters that are twice as efficient as those using other organic materials.

      22. It takes half an hour for a cow-manure fire to reach 950 degree.

      23. E-coli is the most difficult bacterium to remove from water by filtration.

      Questions 24-26

      Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

      Write the correct letter in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.

      24. The Manatuto project aimed to set up a

      A charitable trust.

      B filtration experiment.

      C water filter factory.

      D community kiln.

      25. To be effective, the Flynn filters must

      A remove ail dangerous pathogens.

      B be a particular thickness.

      C filter water as quickly as possible.

      D be made from 100 per cent clay.

      26. Flynn does not intend to patent his filter because he

      A wants it be freely available.

      B has produced a very simple design.

      C cannot make a profit in poor countries.

      D has already given the idea to a charity.

      P3 Who Should Look After Babies in Britain 谁来照看英国的婴儿?

      文章主旨: 实验发现男性和女性对待照顾孩子的问题上观点不同。作者期望可以延长男性的陪产假,以期减少女性在照顾孩子时的压力。

      包含Matching题6题(27-32),单选题4题(33-36)和Summary填空题4题(37-40)

      考题及参考答案: 待补充

      考试预测

      1. 本场考试难度中等,涉及环境(P1)科技(P2)和社会(P3)。考生可在备考时关注相应高频主题词。

      2. 此次考试中,三篇文章一旧两新。第二篇文章为旧题重现。考生复习备考时可借机经熟悉雅思阅读真题文章行文思路和逻辑,辅助深化理解。

      3. 从题型方面来看,难度较低的P1出现了简单的流程图题和判断题,均为顺序题,顺序做即可。难度中等偏上的P2为流程图、判断和单选的顺序题组合,依然可运用顺序原则去做。其中,虽然摘要题体现为流程图而不是考生熟悉的Summary填空或者选择题,但面对此种题型并不难,考生完全不必产生紧张情绪,照常定位找答案即可。考生主要反馈第三篇相对简单,因此Matching题也比较好做。所以,总的来说,面对这样难度中等的考试,考生应戒骄戒躁,避免一切低级失误,尽量冲击高分。

      4. 下场考试的话题可能有关人物传记和历史类话题。

      5. 重点浏览14-16年机经。

    (责任编辑:kid)

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